International Buffalo Congress February 18-20, 2019, Lahore, Pakistan Subsistence to Commercialization

IBC 2019 Guidelines for Authors

Manuscripts and communications are accepted on the understanding that these have not been published nor are being considered for publication elsewhere.

  1. Soft copy of Manuscripts (only in English language) in Microsoft Word format typed on 1.5 line spacing on A-4 size with 2.54 cm margin on all sides, checked carefully for errors.
  2. The Journal follows, with minor modifications, the style and format of the Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers. 1994. 6th ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).

The manuscript should be in the following format:
Title Page: Must contain only the title and authors’ names and address indicating the corresponding author.


It should be brief and relevant. It must contain the essentials of the report that reflect the contents accurately (No author’s names or address).


The abstract should be concise containing the objectives, methodology, main results and conclusions. It should not exceed 350 words. Appropriate key words must be provided.


 It should be concise, to the point, and must explain clearly the objectives of the study by giving essential background in content to relevant literature. 
Please use the “name-year” system when citing references in the text. Where more citations appear at one point, list them chronologically and, within years by alphabetical order. For example: Baloch (1992); Sarfraz (1992); Dilawar et al. (1995); Sumera (1995 a, b); Majeed (2000, 2001); Gilani and Muhammad (2002); Hussain and Hassan (2003). For more details please

Materials and Methods must explicitly describe the materials used, the analytical techniques followed and procedures employed for the data analysis. When using standard method, provide complete reference. In case a modified method has been applied, then the modification must be elaborated. The year and place of study, laboratory (s) must be indicated. Experimental design (if applicable) and statistical techniques employed for data analysis must be mentioned clearly.

Results and Discussion could either be combined or treated separately. The results should be concisely presented using tables and figures. The same data may not be used in both. Appropriate statistical data should be given. Discussion must be developed logically in a proper sequence and should cover the implications and consequences not merely recapitulating the results.

References: List all references under the heading Literature cited in alphabetical order by the authors’ surname or last name. Make sure that references quoted in the text are listed. Several papers by the same author and same year must be followed by a, b, c, etc. after the year. The use of standard abbreviations is preferred. Following information must be provided for each reference. 

Author or authors’ Year of publication; Title of paper/book; Abbreviated name of journal; Volume (issue number); inclusive pages. For books and proceedings, name of publisher and location is needed.


Journal articles:

Malik, M.A., A. Ghafoor, M. Saleem, and M.M. Ahmad (1994). Preservation of watermelon squash using sodium benzoate and potassium metabisulphite. Pakistan. J. Agr. Sci. 31(1): 58-60.


Awan, J.A. (2002). Food processing and preservation. 1st Ed. Unitech Communications; Faisalabad (Pakistan). 135 p
If the city is well known, no need to give the country, otherwise country should be written within parenthesis after the city.

Theses or reports

Qaisrani, T.B. (1998). Use of artificial sweeteners in Knnow drink. M.Sc. thesis (unpublished). Deptt. of Food Tech., Univ. Agri., Faisalabad.
Anonymous. (2002). Economic Survey, Economic Affairs Division, Govt. Pakistan., Islamabad.


Ahmad, M.T. and M.A. Khan (2003). Proc. Pak. Assoc. Sci., 12:59.


These should be kept minimum. Prepare figures and line drawings using black India ink or laser printer in Corel Draw, Excel or a similar package compatible with Windows 98. Number figures consecutively with Arabic numerals e.g. Fig. 3. Captions should describe the contents so that each illustration is understandable. A hard copy of each figure must be supplied and placed at the end of the manuscript. These should also be provided on diskette (with an accompanying printout).


Number tables consecutively throughout the manuscript with Arabic numerals. All numbered tables must be referred to in the text. Table should be few in number, carefully designed, un-crowded containing only essential data. Keep column headings and descriptive matter brief and do not use vertical rules between columns. Only tables that complement the text, rather that duplicate it, will be accepted. Keep tables to a reasonable size. Large tables should be divided into components.


If any, should precede references. In generalstrive for a clear straightforward style that shapes up only from an imaginative use of precise, intelligible language. Keep up the literary tone of the presentation, but not at the cost of brevity and clarity.

Acronyms must be defined at first mention in the text. Use standard abbreviations.

Units and Currencies 

Use Metric/SI (System international) units throughout the manuscript. If non-SI units must be used, please give conversion to the correct SI unit.